Approaching Jerusalem (19:28-40)
Weeping over Jerusalem (19:41-44)
Jesus at the Temple (19:45-48)
Jesus’ Authority Questioned
Parable of the Vinedressers
Paying Taxes to Caesar (20:20-26)
Resurrection and Marriage
The Sonship of Christ (20:41-44)
Warning to Be Aware of the
“The Lord has need of it,”
rejoice, praise God, mighty works, wept, know, time of your visitation, house
of prayer, authority, vinedressers, servant, beloved son, stone, marveled,
resurrection, sons of God, die/live, Christ, Son of David, Lord.
1. The disciples found it just as
the Lord had predicted. The owner of the colt agreed to lend him to Jesus. The
colt, which no one had ever sat on, was obedient instead of unruly.
2. Riding on the donkey signified
the Lord’s humility. The donkey was a lowly animal, which a king would not
normally ride on.
3. 1. We should render our
possessions and talents to the Lord for His use whenever He calls us to His
service. 2. The Lord may accomplish His plans through something or someone who
seem insignificant, just as He did through a colt. God, who is almighty,
chooses to let His plan “depend” on those who submit to His will. Even though
we are weak and lowly, we can become the Lord’s important instruments if we
give ourselves to His work.
4. They did not believe Jesus was
the Christ and thought it was inappropriate for the disciples to honor Him with
the words of praise to the Messiah.
5. They did not know or see “the
things that make for your peace” and “the time of your visitation.” Jerusalem,
whose name means “peace,” failed to receive the Lord Jesus Christ, the king of
peace who came to bring reconciliation between God and His people. The word
“visitation” may mean either divine favor (e.g. Gen 50:24; Ex 3:16; Lk 1:30) or
judgment (e.g. Ex 32:34). The coming of Jesus Christ was a time of God’s
visitation, bringing salvation to believers and judgment to unbelievers. The
people did not recognize the coming of the Messiah but rejected Him and
crucified Him. Thus, they forfeited the peace from God and brought God’s
judgment upon themselves.
6. The Lord’s weeping shows His
deep love for His people (Lk 13:34). Rather than feeling resentment, He was
grieved by His children’s rebellion and wept at the thought of their impending
7. The term “den of thieves” is a
quotation from Jer 7:11. The buyers and sellers seemed to be conducting their
business for the sake of facilitating worship, but they were evil either in
their dealings or in their intention. Such practice profaned the temple of God,
which God had established as a place where people of all nations could call on
9. Cleansing the temple
(19:45-46). Teaching in the temple and preaching the gospel (19:47; 20:1).
10. Jesus’ popularity posed a
direct challenge to the religious establishment and threatened the position and
authority of these religious leaders. Seeking to secure their own authority,
the chief priests and scribes came and questioned Jesus about the source of His
11. Their problem was their
stubborn refusal to accept the one God had sent, while trying to cover up their
disbelief. They chose to reject God but did not want to lose their position as
religious leaders. Such dilemma made them unable to answer Jesus’
counter-question. In effect, Jesus made them answer their own question and at
the same time pointed out their callousness.
12b. The religious leaders whom
God had appointed to teach and care for His people.
12d. God’s prophets.
12d. Jesus Christ
13. Just as the owner leased the
vineyard to the vinedressers and expected them to care for it, God entrusted
the religious leaders the responsibility of guiding His people to obey Him. But
instead of acting as responsible stewards, they took it on themselves the
authority of the owner and rejected God’s messengers. Their obsession for
authority made them wicked doers who rejected God’s will and persecuted His
14. Jesus is the stone. The world
rejected Him, but God has established Him as the chief cornerstone. Whoever
wants to be saved must put his trust in Him (Acts 4:11,12), but whoever
despises or rejects Him does so to his own destruction (Jn 3:18).
15. Whether Jesus answered in the
affirmative or the negative, He would have offended either the Jews or the
16a. We need to give to our
governing authority what is rightly theirs in the same way we should render to
God what rightly belongs to Him. In other words, we still need to fulfill our
obligations to earthly authorities while we devote ourselves to the service of
16b. Jesus first asked them a
question about whose inscription it was on the coin. He used their response to
answer their own question. Since the people enjoyed the benefits of the Roman
rule, they ought to give to Caesar what was rightfully his. But contrary to
what many Jews at the time believed, paying taxes to Caesar did not and should
not conflict with their loyalty to God. While expecting the coming of the
Messianic kingdom, the people of God still must fulfill their responsibilities
to the governing authorities.
17. In a narrower sense, we need
to supply for the work of God with tithes and offerings, which rightfully
belong to God (Mal 3:8-10). In a broader sense, we should offer our entire
being and life to God because he made us and has given us life (see Mt 22:37).
Just as we have obligations to fulfill as citizens of an earthly nation, we who
are citizens of the heavenly kingdom must all the more serve God with absolute
18. Unless the earthly government
opposes the teachings of God, it is the duty of all Christians to submit to our
governments. We do so not only because we have enjoyed the government’s
protection and benefits, but also for the glory of God (Rom 13:1-7; 1Pet
19. They hoped to prove that
belief in resurrection is absurd.
20a. God’s self-identification as
the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob showed that these
people were alive to God even though they had died physically. God, who is
eternal and who is faithful to His everlasting covenant, would not identify
Himself as the God of the dead.
20b. The Sadducees believed that
human beings cease to exist in body and spirit upon death, and along this line
of reasoning, there is no resurrection. But if Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob were
all alive when they had already died physically, it means that there is
spiritual life after death. This also means that resurrection, as promised by God
in the Scripture, would be entirely possible.
21. The Pharisees as well as the
common people only thought of the Messiah as the Son of David who would be heir
to David’s throne. But the Lord Jesus, by citing Psalm 110, showed them that
such understanding was insufficient. Christ was not just a descendent of David
who would rule over Israel, but he was greater than David. In fact, He was God
22. 1. False piety for the sake
of receiving praise from men. 2. Using such false piety to take advantage of