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A.     Author

Apostle Paul (1:1)

B.     Paul’s Life

1.        Paul was a Jew, from the tribe of Benjamin (11:1), and was born in the city of Tarsus in Asia Minor between 2 and 3 A.D. (Acts 9:11; 22:3).  He grew up in Jerusalem, was taught by Gamaliel (Acts 22:3), and, therefore, was greatly influenced by Greek culture and knew well the laws of the Jews (Phil 3:5-6)

2.        In 36 A.D., on the way to Damascus, Paul was called by the Lord to become an apostle to the gentiles (Acts 9:3-15; 22:6-21; 26:13-23)

3.        Withdrew himself to the desert of Arabia for three years to receive revelation of Christ (Gal 1:11-18; I Cor 11:23; 15:3-8; II Cor 12:1-4)

4.        Went to see Peter for the first time in Jerusalem, and stayed with him for fifteen days (Gal 1:18-19; Acts 9:26-30)

5.        Invited by Barnabas to go from Tarsish to Antioch in 43 A.D. (Acts 11:25-26)

6.        First missionary trip, 45-48 A.D. (Acts 13,14)

7.        Attended the Jerusalem conference in 49/50 A.D. (Acts 15)

8.        Second missionary trip, 50-52 A.D. (Acts 15:36-18:22)

9.        Third missionary trip, 53-58 A.D. (Acts 18:23-21:26)

10.     Arrested in Jerusalem, appealed to Caesar, brought to Rome on ship, beheaded and died a martyr in 67 A.D.

C.     Recipient of the letter

The church in Rome

1.        When Paul wrote the Book of Romans, the church in Rome gradually became more prosperous, their faith and virtues were known by all (1:8)

2.        Among the believers in the Roman Church, there were more gentile believers than Jewish believers (1:13; 11:13)

D.     Time and place of writing. 

After writing this book, Paul brought the contribution of Macedonia and Acaia to Jerusalem to help the believers who were in need (15:25-28; Acts 19:21).  From this we can predict that this book was written towards the end of Paul’s third missionary trip, during the three months he stayed in Corinth, approximately 57 or 58 A.D.

E.     Purpose of the book

After his work in Asia Minor, Macedonia, and Acaia, Paul desired to go to preach in Rome and Spain (1:15; 15:22-24, 28).  He hoped to use this letter to instruct the believers in Rome of the pure and complete Truth before he went to them.  This book is unlike other letters of Paul, which deal with specific problems with the church, instead, it systematically lays out the Truth of salvation.


A.     Introduction (1:1-17)

1.        Author (1:1-6)

 a.      Paul: servant and apostle (1:1)

 b.      In his self-introduction, Paul explained the content of the Gospel:  the human nature and divine nature of Jesus Christ (1:2-6)

2.       Recipient (1:7)

 a.      Those whom God loves, called to become saints

3.        Greetings (1:7)

4.        Thanks and expectations (1:8-15)

 a.      Words of thanks (1:8)

 b.      Hoping to go to Rome (1:9-15)

(a)     pray to God to open the way (1:9-10)

(b)     share spiritual gifts, strengthen the church (1:11)

(c)     Paul and believers were both comforted (1:12)

(d)     fruits of labor (1:13)

(e)     determination to preach (1:14-15)

5.        Main thesis of the Book of Romans (1:16-17)

 a.      The Gospel will save all who believe, first the Jews, then the Greeks (1:16)

 b.      God’s righteousness is revealed from faith to faith, the just shall live by faith (1:17)

B.     Main Body (1:18-11:36)

1.        Both Jews and Greeks are under control of sin and evil (1:18-3:20)

 a.      Gentiles are sinners (1:18-32)

(a)     sins of gentiles-ungodliness and wickedness (1:18-23)

(b)     God allows them .... (1:24-32)

(i)       uncleanness and the lusts of their hearts (1:24-25)

(ii)     committing shameful lusts (1:26-27)

(iii)    unrighteousness and unlawful deeds (1:28-32)

 b.      Jews are sinners (2:1-3:8)

(a)     Jews will also be subject to judgment (2:1-11)

(i)       in whatever you judge another, you condemn yourself (2:1-3)

(ii)     the goodness of God leads man to repentance (2:4-5)

(iii)    God’s judgment (2:6-11)

(b)     God’s law for judgment (2:12-16)

(c)     Sins of the Jews (2:17-24)-“You who make your boast in the law, do you dishonor God through breaking the law?”

(d)     If one breaks the law, then circumcision has become uncircumcision (2:25-29)

(e)     Although the Jews are the chosen people, God is judgment of righteousness will not change (3:1-8)

 c.      “There is none righteous, no, not one” (3:9-20)

(a)     Everyone does evil, there is no fear for God (3:9-18)

(b)     No flesh will be justified in God’s sight by the deeds of the law (3:19-20)

2.        Truth of Redemption and Salvation (3:21-8:39)

 a.      Justification (3:21-5:21)

(a)     Meaning of God’s righteousness

(i)       God grace

(ii)     Jesus’ sacrifice of redemption, by His blood

(iii)    by our faith, those who believe in Jesus are justified

(b)     By our faith, we are considered righteous by God (3:27-4:25)

(i)       We are justified by faith, not by works of law (3:27-31)

(ii)     “Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness”; circumcision was Abraham’s sign of being justified by faith (4:1-25)

1.        Abraham became the father of those who are circumcised and those uncircumcised believers

2.        by faith and by grace

3.        Abraham believed in God who can raise the dead and create something from nothing; today the resurrection of Jesus allows us to be justified by faith

(c)     Consequence of justification (5:1-11)

(i)       to have peace with God (5:1)

(ii)     rejoice in hope of God’s glory (5:2)

(iii)    rejoice in tribulations (5:3-5)

(iv)   God’s love is manifested in Christ dying for sinners (5:6-11)

1.        to be saved by His resurrection

2.        rejoice in God through Jesus

(d)     An abundance of grace (5:12-21)

 b.      Sanctification (6:1-8:39)

(a)     Baptism (6:1-23)

(i)       Meaning and effect of water baptism (6:1-11)

1.        be baptized into Christ, into His death

2.        be united in the likeness of Christ’s death, and in the likeness of His resurrection

3.        to walk in the newness of life

4.        consider ourselves dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus

(ii)     Newness of Life (6:12-23)

1.        do not let sin to rule over us, do not allow our bodies to become instruments of unrighteousness

2.        present ourselves to God as instruments of righteousness

3.        be God’s servants, bearing fruits of righteousness, which lead to eternal life

(b)     Holy Spirit (7:1-8:17)

(i)       Christians are not bound by the Law, serve the Lord with the newness of the Holy Spirit (7:1-6)

(ii)     the Law allow us to know what is sin, but cannot deliver us from sin (7:7-13)

(iii)    living in flesh, man cannot overcome sin (7:14-24)

(iv)   the law of the Spirit that gives life has freed us in Christ Jesus (7:25-8:4)

(v)     those who are mindful of the Spirit will receive peace (8:5-11)

(vi)   rely on the Holy Spirit to put to death the evil in our flesh so that we may live (8:12-17)

1.        the Holy Spirit and our spirit testify that we are God’s children (8:16)

2.        be heirs together with Christ, as we suffer with Him, we also receive glory with Him (8:17)

(c)     Suffering and Patience (8:18-39)

(i)       have patience in suffering because of our hope (8:18-25)

(ii)     the Holy Spirit helps us in our weakness (8:26-27)

(iii)    have faith in God’s calling:  all things work together (8:28-30)

(iv)   to overcome tribulation and suffering, no one can separate us from the love of Christ (8:31-39)

1.        since God has given His only begotten Son to save us, will He not give us everything freely?

2.        we are considered righteous by God (justified)

3.        Jesus died for us and resurrected, and is now interceding for us at the right hand side of God

3.        Salvation of Jews and Gentiles (9:1-11:36)

 a.      Paul’s concern for the salvation of the Jews (9:1-5)

 b.      God did not fail to fulfill His promise for Israelites (9:6-13)

 c.      God has absolute power and authority in His choosing (9:14-29)

 d.      True righteousness is obtained by faith (9:30-10:13)

(a)     the Jews wanted to make themselves righteous, disregarding God’s righteousness (10:3)

(b)     Gentiles who did not pursue righteousness were instead justified by faith (9:30)

(c)     by confessing that Jesus is Lord and believing that He has raised from the dead, we can be saved (10:9)

 e.      The Jews listened but refused to believe (10:14-21)

 f.       Not all the Israelites will be forsaken (11:1-12)

 g.      Gentiles should not boast of their own salvation (11:13-24)

(a)     “if they are forsaken ... then reconciled....they will have life from the dead” (11:15)

(b)     “..they did not believe, .... were broken off” (11:20)

 h.      Relationship between Jews and Gentiles in the matter salvation (11:25-32)

 i.        Praise God’s great wisdom (11:33-36)

C.     EXHORTATIONS (12:1-15:13)

1.        Offer one’s own self to God (12:1-2)

 a.      Offer our bodies as living sacrifices (12:1)

 b.      Do not pattern ourselves after this world, need to renew our hearts and minds (12:2)

2.        Humility:  Do not look upon ourselves more than we ought to (12:3-8)

 a.      According to our level of faith (12:3)

 b.      Different gifts from God (12:4-8)

3.        Have love towards man (12:9-21)

4.        Relationship between Christ and the government (13:1-7)

 a.      Those in authority are commanded by God (13:1)

 b.      They are God’s servants and are of benefit to us (13:4)

5.        Love fulfills the law (13:8-10)

6.        Be watchful and awaken early, for Christ is coming soon (13:11-14)

7.        Love is to show concern for another’s weakness (14:1-23)

 a.      Do not criticize others (14:1-12)

 b.      Do not cause others to fall (14:13-23)

8.        Those who are strong should carry the weakness of those who are not strong, do not seek one’s own pleasures (15:1-13)

D.     PAUL’S PERSONAL NOTES (15:14-33)

1.        Duties and determination of an apostle to the gentiles (15:14-33)

 a.      All things are done through the grace of God (15:15)

 b.      Gentile believers, being sanctified by the Holy Spirit, are an acceptable sacrifice to God (15:16)

 c.      Aside from the thing that Christ has done, Paul did not write of anything (15:18)

 d.      From Jerusalem to Illyricum preaching the gospel to all places (15:19)

 e.      Determined not to preach the gospel in where Christ is already known (15:20)

2.        Paul’s itinerary and travelogue (15:22-29)

3.        Requesting the prayer of the Roman Church (15:30-33)


1.        Recommendation letters (16:1-2)

2.        Greetings (16:3-16)

3.        Warn against temptations of false teachers (16:17-19)

4.        Greetings on behalf of his fellow workers (16:21-24)

F.      BENEDICTION (16:25-27)