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Christology (The Doctrine of Christ)
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Christology (The Doctrine of Christ)

I.       The Word Became Flesh

God named our Lord Jesus before his birth (Lk 1:31). Jesus is a common form of the Hebrew name Joshua, which means “Yahweh saves” or “May Yahweh save” (cf. Mt 1:21). “Christ,” translated from the Greek word Christos, which is “Messiah” in Hebrew, means the “Anointed One.”

A.     Prophecies Concerning the Birth of Jesus Christ.

1.        Christ is born by a virgin (Isa 7:14); he is the “seed of the woman” (Gen 3:15).

Fulfilled: The virgin Mary had divine conception through the Holy Spirit and gave birth to our Savior, Jesus Christ (Mt 1:18–25).

2.        Christ comes from the direct line of David (Isa 11:1; Jer 23:5; Mt 22:41–42).

Fulfilled: In his genealogy, Jesus Christ was the seed of David (Mt 1:1, 20; cf. Mt 9:27, 15:22).

3.        Christ would be born in Bethlehem (Mic 5:2; Mt 2:4–6).

Fulfilled: God drew Joseph and Mary from Nazareth, in Galilee, to Bethlehem for registration in the census decreed by Caesar Augustus. Joseph had to go to Bethlehem because he was of the house and lineage of David (Lk 2:1–7).

B.     God’s Instruction in the Time of the Nativity

1.        God sent an angel to instruct Mary, “You will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus” (Lk 1:31; 26–38).

2.        The angel of the Lord told Joseph, “Do not fear to take Mary your wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit” (Mt 1:20, 18–25).

3.        On the eve of the nativity, an angel of the Lord appeared to the shepherds, giving this great tiding: “For to you is born this day in the city of David a Savior, who is Christ the Lord” (Lk 2:8–20).

C.     After the Nativity

1.        The prophet Simeon and prophetess Anna announced to all in the temple that Jesus was the expected Savior, the consolation of Israel (Lk 2:22–39).

2.        The wise men from the East came to worship the Lord upon seeing his star in the East (Mt 2:1–12).

3.        By the instruction of God, the infant Jesus, Joseph, and Mary escaped from Herod’s persecution to Egypt. After the death of Herod, all of them returned to Nazareth where Jesus eventually grew up (Mt 2:3, 13–23).

II.    The Ministry Of Jesus Christ

A.     Jesus Proclaimed the Gospel of the Kingdom of Heaven (Mt 4:23, 9:35).

1.        Jesus began his ministry at about thirty years of age (Lk 3:23).

2.        The message he proclaimed was to “repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand” (Mt 4:17; Mk 1:14, 15). Because he proclaimed the good tidings of the heavenly kingdom, his message was thus called “the gospel” or “good news.” He was sent to the world for the purpose of preaching this good message of salvation (Lk 4:43).

3.        The Lord Jesus has revealed the existence of the heavenly kingdom and he has taught us how to enter it:

 a.      The existence of the kingdom of heaven.

Jesus said, “In my Father’s house are many rooms” (Jn 14:1–3; cf. Mt 25:34).

 b.      The glory of the heavenly kingdom.

It is far better to be with Christ in heaven (Phil 1:23). The inheritance in heaven is “imperishable, undefiled, and unfading” (1 Pet 1:4). It is a kingdom that cannot be shaken (Heb 12:28), and of enduring substance (Heb 10:34), in which there shall be no more tears, death, sorrow, or pain (Rev 21:4). The Lord Jesus said, “For in the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven” (Mt 22:30; cf. Mt 13:43, 25:46ff).

4.        The gateway to the kingdom of God.

The Lord Jesus said, “I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father, but by me” (Jn 14:6); “Unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God” (Jn 3:5).

5.        The law of the kingdom of God.

The Lord Jesus said, “A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another” (Jn 13:34). He summarized the law of God into two parts:

 a.      Love God to your uttermost.

 b.      Love your neighbors as yourself (Mt 22:36–40). If, in Christ, we love others, we also love God. So, if we can love others with the love of the Lord, we can fulfill the law of the kingdom of God.

6.        The reward of the kingdom of God.

The Lord Jesus said, “And every one who has left houses or brothers or sisters or father or mother or children or lands, for my name’s sake, will receive a hundredfold, and inherit eternal life” (Mt 19:29). From this statement we know that it is exceedingly valuable for one to work in the service of the kingdom of God (cf. Mt 25:19–23).

B.     Jesus Christ Performed Various Miracles, Signs, and Wonders

Jesus performed many miracles and healing in order to relieve people from their pain, sorrow, and daily concerns. Jesus did much to resolve other peoples’ problems. All the signs, wonders, and miracles Jesus performed testify that he was indeed the Savior of humanity. As a result, many people were led to believe in the Lord (cf. Jn 3:1–2, 11:41, 42, 45, 15:24). Aside from supernatural manifestations, such as the angelic announcement of the virgin birth, the star that guided the wise men, Jesus’ passing through hostile mobs, Jesus’ cleansing of the temple, the Lord’s transfiguration, the darkness at the crucifixion, the torn veil in the temple, the opened tombs, the earthquakes, the soldiers falling like dead men, Jesus’ resurrection, and the appearance of angels who testified to Jesus’ resurrection, there are 35 specific miracles recorded in the Gospels which Jesus performed. They are listed as follows:

1.        Seventeen cures of physical ailments:

 a.      Nobleman’s son was healed in Capernaum (Jn 4:46–54).

 b.      A sick man was healed in Jerusalem (Jn 5:1–9).

 c.      Healing of Peter’s sick mother-in-law (Mt 8:14–17; Mk 1:29–31; Lk 4:38–39)

 d.      A leper (Mt 8:2–4; Mk 1:40–45; Lk 5:12–15).

 e.      A paralytic (Mt 9:2–8; Mk 2:3–12; Lk 5:17–26).

 f.       Man with a withered hand (Mt 12:9–14; Mk 3:1–6; Lk 6:6–11).

 g.      Centurion’s servant (Mt 8:5–13; Lk 7:1–10).

 h.      Two blind men (Mt 9:27–31).

 i.        Deaf and dumb man healed (Mk 7:31–37).

 j.        Blind man at Bethsaida (Mk 8:22–26).

 k.      Blind man in Jerusalem (Jn 9).           

 l.        Woman with 18 years of infirmity (Lk 13:10–17).

 m.     Woman with hemorrhage for 12 years (Mt 9:20–22; Mk 5:25–34; Lk 8:43–48).

 n.      Man with dropsy (Lk 14:1–6).

 o.      Ten lepers (Lk 17:11–19).

 p.      Blind Bartimaeus (Mt 20:29–34; Mk 10:46–52; Lk 18:35–43).

 q.      Malchus’ ear (Lk 22:50, 51).

2.        Six cures of demoniacs:

 a.      A demoniac in the synagogue at Capernaum (Mk 1:21–28; Lk 4:31–37).

 b.      A blind and dumb demoniac (Mt 12:22; Lk 11:14).

 c.      Demoniacs in Gerasenes (Mt 8:28–34; Mk 5:1–20; Lk 8:2–39).

 d.      A dumb demoniac (Mt 9:32–34).

 e.      The Syrophoenician’s daughter (Mt 15:21–28; Mk 7:24–30).

 f.       The epileptic boy (Mt 17:14–21; Mk 9:14–29; Lk 9:37–43).

3.        Three raised from the dead:

 a.      Jairus’ daughter (Mt 9:18–26; Mk 5:22–43; Lk 8:41–56).

 b.      Widow’s son at Nain (Lk 7:11–15).

 c.      Lazarus at Bethany (Jn 11:1–44).

4.        Nine miracles over the forces of nature:

 a.      Water turned to wine in Cana (Jn 2:1–11).

 b.      Catch of fish near Capernaum (Lk 5:1–11).

 c.      Another catch of fish (Jn 21:6).

 d.      Tempest stilled (Mt 8:23–27; Mk 4:35–41; Lk 8:22–25).

 e.      The five thousand people fed with five loaves of bread and two fish (Mt 14:13–21; Mk 6:30–44; Lk 9:10–17; Jn 6:1–14).

 f.       Jesus walked on the sea (Mt 14:22–36; Mk 6:45–52; Jn 6:15–21).

 g.      The four thousand people fed (Mt 15:32–39; Mk 8:1–10).

 h.      Money for the temple tax taken from the mouth of a fish (Mt 17:24–27).

 i.        A fig tree cursed (Mt 21:18–22; Mk 11:12–14, 20–25).

III. Perfect Attributes Of The Lord Jesus Christ

A.     Jesus Is Holy and Righteous

1.        Jesus is without sin and he never commits sin.

 a.      Jesus himself testified that he committed no sin (Jn 8:46).

 b.      Pilate testified that Jesus was sinless (Mt 27:24; Lk 23:4, 14, 22).

 c.      Jesus’ traitor, Judas Iscariot, testified that Jesus was innocent (Mt 27:3–4).

2.        Jesus loves the good and hates iniquity.

 a.      Jesus went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil (Acts 10:38).

 b.      Jesus always did what was pleasing to God (Jn 8:29).

 c.      Jesus severely rebuked the hypocrites and the wicked (Mt 6:2, 5, 16; Mt chap. 23).

3.        Jesus demands his disciples be holy.

 a.      Jesus taught his disciples that they should be clean (Mt 5:21–28).

 b.      Jesus prayed that his disciples would be sanctified (Jn 17:17).

4.        Jesus laid down his life so that humanity could be sanctified (Mt 20:28).

 a.      Jesus died for the remission of our sins (1 Pet 2:21–24).

 b.      Jesus became sin for us (2 Cor 5:21).

 c.      Jesus’ willingness to die for humanity’s sanctification points to his own holiness, for only a sinless person could redeem sinners.

B.     Jesus Is Loving and Merciful

1.        Jesus loved the Father.

 a.      Jesus obeyed the commandments of the Father (1 Jn 5:3; Jn 6:38).

 b.      Jesus submitted to the will of the Father (Mt 26:39, 42; Phil 2:8).

 c.      Jesus glorified the Father only (Jn 7:18, 17:4).

2.        Jesus loved people.

 a.      Jesus felt compassion for the sick (Mt 8:17; Mk 1:40–41).

 b.      Jesus cared for the livelihood of others (Mt 14:15–21, 15:32–38).

 c.      Jesus treated the evil well (Mt 5:43–48, 26:49–50).

 d.      Jesus laid down his life for the whole world (Mt 20:28; Jn 15:13).

C.     Jesus Is Meek and Humble

1.        Jesus is extremely gentle.

 a.      Jesus was not irritable (Mt 5:22; Lk 9:51–56).

 b.      Jesus made no strife with other people (Mt 26:62–63; 1 Pet 2:22–23).

 c.      Jesus endured mockery and scorn (Mt 5:39, 26:67–68; Isa 50:6).

2.        Jesus is extremely humble.

 a.      Jesus received sinners (Lk 5:27–32, 15:1–2).

 b.      Jesus humbled himself to serve others (Mt 20:28; Jn 13:12–17).

 c.      Jesus never glorified himself (Jn 5:41, 8:50; Phil 2:6).

IV.  The Death Of Jesus Christ

A.     Predictions and Typologies Concerning Jesus’ Death

1.        Predictions

 a.      He was to be betrayed for thirty pieces of silver (Zech 11:12–13).

Fulfilled in Mt 26:15–16, 27:3–10.

 b.      The silent sufferings of Jesus recorded in Isaiah chapter 53 (Isa 53:7).

Fulfilled in Mt 27:12–14.

 c.      Jesus would be numbered with the transgressors (Isa 53:12).

Fulfilled in Lk 23:33.

 d.      The sin-offering recorded in Psalm 22 (Ps 22:13–18).

Fulfilled in Jn 19:17–24.

 e.      Jesus foretold his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem, suffer many things from the elders, chief priests, and scribes, be killed, and resurrect on the third day (Mt 16:21, 17:22–23). Jesus once said, “Even as the Son of man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many” (Mt 20:28).

Fulfilled when Jesus gave his life for us, recorded in the passion narratives of all four Gospels.

2.        Types

 a.      Garments of skins, which imply the sacrifice of an animal (Gen 3:21).

 b.      Abel’s offering, which involved blood sacrifice (Gen 4:4).

 c.      Abraham’s offering of Isaac, a type of another Father’s offering of his beloved Son on the same mountain (Gen chap. 22).

 d.      Passover Lamb (Ex chap. 12).

 e.      The Levitical sacrificial system (Lev 1:1–7, 16).

 f.       The bronze serpent (Num 21; Jn 3:14–15).

 g.      The slain Lamb (Isa 53:6–7; Jn 1:29).

Jesus is the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world (Jn 1:29; 1 Pet 1:19). Therefore, we must be baptized into his precious blood to have our eternal condemnation taken away. From the types of Jesus’ sacrifice in the Old Testament, we learn of the Lord’s eternal and sacrificial love for humanity.

B.     The Purpose of Jesus’ Death

1.        Jesus died in order to remit the sins of the world.

The Lord Jesus did not die for his own sins (Jn 19:6). Rather, he died to bear the sins of many (Mt 20:28; Rom 8:3; 1 Cor 15:3; Heb 9:28).

2.        Jesus died in order to fulfill the law.

According to the law almost everything is purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins. If the Lord did not shed his blood on the cross, the sins of the world could never be cleansed (Lev 17:11; Heb 9:22). Jesus died on Calvary to fulfill the law of God (Mt 5:17; Heb 10:1–10).

3.        The result of Jesus’ death.

 a.      General effects.

(a)     Jesus’ death draws people to believe in the Lord (Jn 12:32–33).

(b)     Jesus’ death provides an expiation for the sins of the world (Rom 3:25; 1 Jn 2:2).

 b.      Effect on believers.

(a)     Jesus’ death redeems us from the curse of the law (Rom 7:1–6; Gal 3:13).

(b)     Forgives our sins (Eph 1:7; Heb 9:13–14, 10:10).

(c)     Liberates us from the power of slavery and death (Lk 1:74–75; Heb 2:14–15).

(d)     Reconciles us with God (Rom 5:10; Eph 2:13).

(e)     Justifies us (Rom 5:9; 2 Cor 5:21).

(f)      Provides us a way to the heavenly kingdom (Eph 2:19; Col 1:13–14).

 c.      Effect on Satan.

(a)     Jesus’ death nullifies and destroys the devil (1 Cor 15:55–57; Heb 2:14).

(b)     Dethrones the devil (Jn 12:31, 32).

(c)     Disarms the principalities and powers, and triumph over them (Col 2:14–15).

V.     The Resurrection Of Jesus Christ

A.     Predictions and Types of the Lord’s Resurrection

1.        In the Old Testament.

 “For thou dost not give me up to Sheol, or let thy godly one see the Pit” (Ps 16:10; cf. Acts 2:31).

2.        Jesus predicted his death and resurrection, and foretold this to his disciples several times (Mt 16:21, 17:23, 20:19, 26:32).

3.        The type of Jesus’ resurrection in Jonah.

Jonah was in the belly of a great fish for three days and three nights. Afterward, however, Jonah was vomited out of the belly of the fish. This typifies Jesus’ death, burial, and resurrection (Jon 1:17; Mt 12:40).

B.     Witnesses of the Lord’s Resurrection

1.        Mary Magdalene (Mt 28:1–10; Jn 20:1–2).

2.        Simon Peter (Jn 20:3–8; Acts 2:24–32).

3.        An angel (Mt 28:5, 7; Lk 24:5–8).

4.        The soldiers guarding the tomb (Mt 28:4, 11–15; cf. Mt 27:62–66).

5.        Paul (1 Cor 15:3–8; 2 Tim 2:8; cf. Acts 9:3–8).

C.     Significance of the Lord’s Resurrection

1.        Jesus’ resurrection was a declaration of Jesus’ sonship from God (Rom 1:4).

2.        Jesus’ resurrection demonstrated his victory over death and the devil, for it is an example of eternal life (1 Cor 15:22, 54–55; 2 Tim 1:10).

3.        Jesus’ resurrection gives evidence of the coming great judgment (Acts 17:31; cf. Jn 5:22, 27–29).

4.        Jesus’ resurrection gives us both evidence and confidence of our own resurrection (1 Cor 15:13–14; 1 Thess 4:14; 1 Pet 1:3, 4).

5.        Jesus’ resurrection gives evidence that we too should walk in newness of life, for he has overcome all sins in the flesh (Rom 6:4, 10–13; 8:3–11).

VI.  The Ascension Of Jesus Christ

A.     Historical Facts and Notes on the Ascension.

1.        (Lk 24:50–51).

2.        As the disciples looked up toward heaven, two angels appeared to reaffirm that Jesus had indeed just gone to heaven (Acts 1:9–11).

3.        Jesus went into heaven, therefore, angels, authorities, and powers are now made subject to him (Heb 4:14; 1 Pet 3:22).

B.     Results of Jesus’ Ascension

1.        Jesus’ ascension allows us to understand the mighty power of God (Eph 1:18–21).

2.        Jesus’ ascension resulted in all authority in heaven and on earth being given to the Lord (Mt 28:18; Phil 2:9–10).

3.        God gave the promised Holy Spirit ten days after Christ’s ascension. The Holy Spirit descended on the day of Pentecost for the first time (Jn 7:39, 14:16–17, 16:7; Acts 1:5, 2:33). Christ will come again to take up the saints in order to judge the world (Rev 22:12).

VII.           Jesus Christ Is The True God

A.     Jesus Has the Names and Titles of God

1.        The first and the last (Rev 1:17, 2:8, 22:13; cf. Jn 8:57–58).

2.        The Alpha and the Omega (Rev 1:8, 21:6, 22:13).

3.        The Lord (Mt 22:43–45; Acts 2:36, 3:15, 10:36; Rom 10:12).

4.        Immanuel (Isa 7:14; Mt 1:23).

5.        God (Isa 9:6; Jn 20:28; Acts 20:28; Rom 9:5; 1 Tim 3:16; Tit 2:13; Heb 1:8; 1 Jn 5:20; cf. Jn 10:30, 14:9–11, 18).

B.     Jesus Has the Attributes of God

1.        Omnipotence

 a.      Jesus heals and cures the sick (Mt 9:27–30, 14:14, 35–36; Jn 9:1–3, 6–7).

 b.      He raises the dead (Lk 7:14–15, 8:54–55; Jn 11:43–44).

 c.      He subdues the devil (Mt 8:14, 12:22; Lk 13:10–13).

 d.      ‑He controls the universe (Mt 8:26–27, 14:24–32, 17:24–27, 21:18–19).

 e.      He maintains all things in the universe (Col 1:17; Heb 1:3).

 f.       He has all power in heaven and on earth (Mt 28:18; Jn 3:35; Eph 1:20–22; Phil 2:9–11).

2.        Omniscience

 a.      Jesus knows peoples’ past (Jn 1:47, 48, 4:5–19, 11:3–14).

 b.      He knows peoples’ thoughts (Mt 9:3, 4; Mk 2:8; Lk 6:7, 8; Jn 2:24, 25).

 c.      He knows peoples’ future (Mt 26:30–35, 74, 75; Lk 5:4–6, 22:10–13; Jn 21:18).

 d.      He knows hidden things (Mk 14:12–16; Jn 1:48).

 e.      He is the origin of wisdom and knowledge (1 Cor 1:24, 2:7; Col 2:3).

3.        Omnipresence

 a.      When Jesus was on earth, he was also in heaven (Jn 3:13, NKJV; cf. Jn 14:11, 17:21).

 b.      Jesus promised he would be in the midst of his disciples when they gather (Mt 18:19–20, 28:20; Acts 18:9–10, 23:11).

 c.      Jesus dwells in the believers (Jn 14:20, 17:21–23; 2 Cor 13:5).

 d.      The fullness of the Lord fills all in all (Eph 1:23, 4:10).

C.     Jesus Executes Divine Work

1.        Jesus creates (Jn 1:3; Col 1:16; Heb 1:2, 10).

2.        Jesus forgives sin (Mk 2:5–10; Lk 7:40–49; Jn 5:14).

3.        Jesus judges (2 Cor 5:10; 2 Tim 4:1; Rev 22:12).

4.        Jesus resurrects the dead and gives eternal life (Jn 6:39, 44; 1 Cor 15:52–53; Phil 3:21).

D.     Jesus Is God of the Old Testament

1.        God is the Creator (Gen 1:1; Neh 9:5; Isa 42:5).

Jesus is the Creator (Jn 1:1–3; Col 1:16; Heb 1:10).

2.        God is the Savior (Isa 43:11; Hos 13:4).

Jesus is the Savior (Lk 2:11; Acts 4:12; Jude 24).

3.        God is King (Ps 10:16, 96:10).

Jesus is King (Rev 11:15).

4.        God is the King of glory (Ps 24:10).

Jesus is the Lord of glory (1 Cor 2:8).

5.        God is the God of gods and the Lord of lords (Deut 10:17; Dan 2:47).

Jesus is the Lord of lords and the King of kings (Rev 17:14, 19:16).

6.        God is the Lord of life (Deut 32:39; Jer 38:16).

Jesus is the Lord of life (Jn 1:4, 11:25, 14:6).

7.        God is the first and the last (Isa 44:6, 48:12).

Jesus is the first and the last (Rev 1:17, 22:13).

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